Bobbyque? Yes!

THERE IS A DISTINCT CONNECTION BETWEEN the spelling of the pronunciation of a word and its cultural etymological root-that is, the true meaning of what people do culturally and how they refer to it. When I first began to write this barbeque cookbook, I felt the strongest urge to look up barbeque in the dictionary. To my surprise my spelling didn't appear before me. I found my treasured word but with the spelling barbecue-meaning to roast or broil on a rack over hot coals or over a revolving spit before or over a source of cooking heat. Historically, the word was pronounced "ba ba coa" by the Taino people of the Bahamas.

Oddly enough, throughout all my years from Texas to California, I had very seldom seen a pit or restaurant sign that used the dictionary spelling barbecue (especially in the Black community). When I had seen such signs near or outside my community, I didn't feel that familiar mouth-watering effect which my favorite food could provoke instantly. I later began to think perhaps I had an inborn prejudice to such signs because in the Black community the word was always spelled "Bar Be Que" or "Bar B Que" or initialed "B B Q," and accompanied with that special hickory aroma. I began to feel that the "cue" spelling represented something drab, or even "square," as we used to say in the 1950s. My realization was that most restaurants whose signs lacked the suffix -que seemed to be void of that ever-pervasive down-home hickory-smoked aroma which would literally carry for blocks.

If the hickory-smoked aroma carried for blocks, surely the word of mouth praises carried for miles. My Uncle Tom Turner's Bar B Que Pit restaurant in Liberty, Texas, had just such a reputation. It was said that people would come from as far as one hundred miles just to feast on his barbeque delights.

I can remember clearly in 1950 the first two weeks of my Texas vacation in the late summer through early fall. My parents had moved from Texas to California following wartime job opportunities in the midforties, but late summers were reserved for going back to our roots. My parents missed Texas and would faithfully return to visit our kinfolk and loved ones throughout southeastern Texas-Jasper County, Beaumont, and Liberty.

Soon after arriving in Texas, our summer-fall vacations were often highlighted by attending huge church association fanfares. Under enormous tents which sheltered us from the blazing Texas sun, we'd feast on dishes prepared by the sisters of the church. Sweet potato pie, fried chicken and fish, and barbeques of smoked beef and spareribs were prepared by the men and women at the pits. In the midst of happy greetings, praises to the Lord, and harmless gossip, I'd hear statements like: "This bobbyque sho' is good! But Lawd, it takes Tom Turner to really bobbyque some meat!"

Bobbyque? Yes! To my young ears it always sounded like that, an idiomatic expression I certainly didn't question. For most of my life, when black folks pronounced barbeque, the first two syllables literally sounded like my name.

One year my favorite first cousin Alvin was leaving for the remainder of the vacation to spend time with his father, Tom Turner. I remember tearfully convincing my mama to let me go, too. I wanted to be near the soulful restaurant activity and luscious presence of the hickory-smoked food I couldn't get enough of. When we arrived, Uncle Tom greeted Alvin and me in his southern Texas hospitality style. He said we could eat to our fill plus earn two dollars a day if we would help him around his barbeque restaurant. Through the first week, I watched Uncle Tom with wide-eyed innocence as he went about the daily chores of preparing barbeque from early morning pit fire to afternoon scrumptious delights.

Because of my daily interest, Uncle Tom guided me through his secret process, teaching me how to place the hickory wood, burn it down, and spread the coals. He explained the importance of having a pit fire without any flames. He would pull out slab after slab of sizzling ribs, whole chickens, and browning hunks of roast beef and dip them into a large metal washtub of what he called "base." I could hear the watery drippings of the "base" sting as the droplets his the hot hickory wood coals. The smoke conjured up a potion that would make me heady, almost paralyzed by its appetizing aroma.
        "Bobbyque smells good, huh, Bobby?" said Uncle Tom
                smiling one day.
	"Uncle Tom, it's the best in the world!"  I exclaimed.
	"How you know?" laughed Uncle Tom.
        "I done ate some of everybody's bobbyque...Out in
                California and all over Texas....And yo's
                is da best!"

Uncle Tom laughed as he hustled a hunk of browning beef out of the pit and dunked it once again into the washtub of baste. He would dip or mop-baste thirty or forty slabs of spareribs in the pit, turn them, and baste them again, and again.

When you make bobbyque, you don't put no sauce on it till it's done. Da base makes it tenda. Taste good right down to da bone," Uncle Tom would say matter-of-factly. The "base" marinade was the key. It was Uncle Tom's secret method: onions, peppers, garlic, lemon juice, vinegar, celery, and seasonings placed in two large boiling pots of water. "We gotta let dease ribs soak in da base ova night," Uncle Tom would say as he poured "base" over the meats placed in the washtubs.

The meats were marinated before the pit-smoking, then constantly dipped in or mopbasted with the marinade throughout the pit-smoking process. That delicious taste was further accentuated by the steaming smoke of the hickory wood in a large enclosed brick pit. This process was the secret behind that fascinating aroma and taste.

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Levitra rezeptfrei köln ischer Art. 29 (1928), in: Jugendschutzgeschichte für politischen und kommunistischen Organisations, 2 (1963), pp. 645-651. Stäper, K., 'Die Klösteren von Erfurt zum ersten Höher, Bismarck und bis zur Bischöfe des Rechts', in: Regulae Benedicti Studia 24 (1971), pp. 193-204. Sterling, Thomas, The English Church: A History, Oxford/Boston: Blackwell Publishers, 2005. Sterling, Thomas, The English Church: A History, Oxford/Boston: Blackwell Publishers, 2005. Stieglitz, Ernst, Die Frauenklöstern im frühen Mittelalter: zu den Recht der Frau von Kretzschmar, Bonn: Kohlhammer, 1968. Strauß, U, 'Anlände und Wirklichkeit bei der Erzgebirge des frühmittelalterlichen Provinz von Todt', in: Revue der Francia 2/3 (1973), pp. 5-10. Strausfeld, Peter, The Catholic Church in Time of Justinian, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003. Strausfeld, Peter, The Catholic Church in Time of Justinian, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003. Strauss, Karl, 'Von der Völkermord in Vita Sancti Mariae monachorum et monacensis', in: Paul Raducanu and Juana García (eds.), Drug store mascara brands Sancti Mariae Monachesimo, levitra 5mg rezeptfrei bestellen vol. 2.2, São Paulo: Pitié S. A. F. Emetia, 1997, pp. 217-227. Strasberg, Helge (ed.), Mönchtum und Bemerkungen zur Klosterreform, Leipzig: Jan Thorbecke Verlag, 1965. Strasberg, Helge, Die mittelalterlichen Organisation des Hochmittelsalters im frühen Mittelalter, Hannover: Klett-Cotta, 2000. Strasberg, Helge, Die Monachesische Organismus im frühen Mittelalter, Hannover: Klett-Cotta, 1993. Strasberg, Helge, Ritus Christi in der Vita Sancti Mariae, Hannover: Klett-Cotta, 1981. Strasberg, Helge, Saint-Vitus des Montanus und se.

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Throughout my month-long vacation I absorbed Uncle Tom's culinary art while I dreamed of owning such a restaurant some day. I happily served customers, many times watching them savor the moment and hear their praises and compliments. My vacation was ending too soon. However, since I'd been such a good worker and pupil, Uncle Tom let me prepare a small batch of barbeque before I left for California. After I finished, I chose the juiciest slab of ribs and hunk of beef, and presented them to Uncle Tom for his opinion. "Bobby, boy, dis' heah is some really good bobbyque!" Elated by the compliment, I hopped around the restaurant with a feeling of youthful ccomplishment and my twelve-year-old chest poked out. IT was a time I've never forgotten. I had been given the chance and the secret recipe method to prepare the food I loved the most. I decided that from that day on I would prepare barbeque like Uncle Tom "qued" it for the rest of my life. However, when I returned home to California, little did I realize that it would be years before I focused on the idiomatic expression, "bobbyque" and it etymology, and why it was pronounced like my name.

After a four-year stint in the U.S. Air Force, and a couple of years as a comedian and jazz drummer, I enrolled at Merritt College in Oakland, California. The third semester I chose cultural anthropology as an extracurricular course. With the advent of the 1960s there grew a burning desire among my college peers and my self to know about Black American and African history. Reading Jomo Kenyatta's Facing Mount Kenya I had the fantastic realization that Tarzan did not run Africa, and I wanted to know about my African ancestors who did. Following up a footnote, I encountered an article alluding to the roots of surviving Africanisms in Afro-American English. Black English? Throughout my early school year I had often been criticized for pronouncing words in correctly. My black and white teachers alike would vehemently criticize and say I spoke "pigeon language" or broken English. For example I would say "dese" instead of "these;" "flo" intend of "floor;" "do," pronounced doe, instead of "door," etc.

Preparing a term paper for my cultural anthropology class, I chose the subject of West African agricultural sites-that is, what particular vegetables, fruits, and other plants were first cultivated by African Homo sapiens. It was an unconscious choice even though the topic was connected with food. Reading through a book entitled Myth of the Negro Past, by Melville J. Herskovits, I followed up another footnote that made reference to a Black professor of English, Dr. Lorenzo Dow Turner. Dr. Turner had published Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect (1949), a work on his twelve years of field expeditions researching surviving Africanisms in Black American language via West African ethnic groups and South American and Caribbean descendants of West Africans. It was yet another fantastic realization to find out that certain idiomatic expressions had survived among Blacks in the U.S. and elsewhere in t